Grinding Wheels PS Ball (Steel Compound Ball)

What’s S C Ball ?

1. What is SC Ball?
(1) SC Ball is an abbreviation of Steel Compound Ball and a newly born material.
(2) SC Ball is produced through Slag Atomizing Technology (SAT).
(3) SC Ball is a product out of slag generated from steel making process.
(4) Usages of SC Ball using physical properties are numerous and the substitute of sand
has priority over other applications. Besides, the physical efficiency shall be improved
if SC Ball is mixed with sand and cement.
(5) SC Ball is an environment-friendly material proved by Ministry of Environment.
(6) SC Ball has a superior characteristic comparing with sand on compressive strength,
hardness and anti-weathering.
(*) SAT represents…
1) The new technology to produce SC Ball
2) An abbreviation of Slag Atomizing Technology
3) The technology to produce SC Ball from the molten Slag generated from steel
making process with the stable status of spinel structure (refer to Appendix #1) by
rapid air cooling system

4) The new technology enabled to produce the valuable products from the waste.
5) The technology to produce the environment-friendly material

(*) SC Ball is the pride of FACTORY IN KOREA
1) Patents
– Acquired the patents from USA, Japan and Korea (1996)
– Applied the patent of PCT (2000)
2) Awards
– Awarded New Technology Certificate by S&M Business Administration (1999)
– Awarded the Certificate of Distinction “One of Ten Best New Technology” (1999)
– Awarded “Good Recycled Certificated” (2000)
– Awarded “The President Prize” (2000)
– Awarded “A Minister Prize of the Ministry of CIE” (2000)
– Awarded “Jang Young Shil Prize (Industrial Research 52)” (2000)

3) R&D
FACTORY IN KOREA has several R&D Records through the Ministry of
Environmen

KIST , RIST , KEPRI , KHC , KCC,and still makes progress with several instItutes.

2. Advantages of SC Ball
(1) Reuse of waste (steel slag)
(2) Various Applications (Physical & Chemical properties)
(3) Prevention Pollution (Received official letter from Ministry of Environment)
(4) Superior to sand on compressive strength, hardness
(5) More economical of slag treatment
(6) New sources of ET in 21st century
(*) Spherical shape of SC Ball

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3. Production process of SC Ball
(1) Collect the molten slag generated from steel making process.
(2) The molten slag is atomized and cooled by water rapidly.
– The useful metal from the molten slag is comparatively heavier than slag, the metal
will be collected on the floor where the slag is atomized and become the stable spinel
structure.
– SAT can collect useful metal economically than conventional method.
(3) After collecting the metal, SC Ball shall be moved to the sieving machine.
(4) SC Ball shall be classified by size through sieving machine.
(5) Shipping SC Ball at client’s request

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Atomizing

Atomizing

Advantages of SC Ball as Spinel Structure

*. What is Spinel Structure?
(1) Summary
– The structure is a result of SAT.
– Spinel structure is a stable structure removed the main factor of pollution.
– The structure is very strong on anti-weathering, anti-wearing with the round shape of
glass.
– This structure enables the SC Ball has many applications.
(2) Contents in details
1) Slag status of conventional method
In general, the slag is processed after cooling by water in normal temperature, this slag
processed by conventional method contains free CaO about 0.1% to 20%. Over 1% of
free CaO is the primary factor of expansion of slag itself. Free CaO is also a factor of
pollution, and caused to restrict its applications

Free CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
Free CaO will be changed to Ca(OH)2 when it react with H2O. Ca(OH)2 is weathered
continuously, so the slag should be restricted its usage by above reason.
For the use of civil work, the slag produced by conventional method should be
weathered in slag yard for 6 months to one year minimum or aged by steam which will
cost additionally.

2) New Technology (SAT, SC Ball)
As explained previous chapter, free CaO and Fe2O3 shall be scattered into the solid slag
assumed the form of the molecule itself if the slag is processed by the conventional
method, eventually free CaO and Fe2O3 shall be blown off in the air after weathering.
But our new technology let the molten slag cool immediately by the high-speed air and
water, the various unstable elements become the forms of CaO-Fe2O3, SiO2-Fe2O3, Mg-
Fe2O3.
There shall be no free CaO in our products, and the surface will be glassy with spinel
structure.
The spinel structure is the combined form of 2CaO-Fe2O3, 2CaO-SiO2 and the like.
[Graph I] indicates the analysis result of XRD of Slag processed by our new technology,
and shows the formation of dicalcium ferrite(2CaO-Fe2O3) and Larnite(β -2CaO-SiO2).
Besides, our new technology enables the slag into the granulated-round shaped form
which comes into good effect of concrete mixture. The chemical ingredients of SC Ball is
nearly the same as the slag of conventional method but the free CaO content is below
0.15% while the content of conventional method is over 1%. For the physical
characteristics, the specific gravity of SC Ball proved 3.56 as the contents involves 2CaOFe2O3,
Fe2O3 and Fe2O4. And the absorption rate of water indicated 0.42% while the
natural sand is about 1%. That was the result of our new technology, which blocked the
SC Ball, form the air-hole, and this technology enable SC Ball diversity in various applications.

SC Ball Application

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1. Advantages of SC Ball as Construction materials
SC Ball is new and environment-friendly materials authorized from the Ministry of
Environment of the Republic of Korea, contains superior physical properties like
compressive strength, tensile strength, other properties as construction materials and then
have been applying to various usages as aggregates like sand substitutes, cement admixture
and construction industries.
2. Reports for Certificates
(1) Korea Institute of Construction Technology (KICT)
KICT has approved the following 5 tests as the usages for construction materials
1) Acid reactions, alkaline reactions
2) General and basic strength for aggregates
3) Coherence and affinity with cement
4) Compressive strength, tensile strength, thermal conductivity, fitness modulus,
specific gravity, SEM structure, wear proof, fireproof, etc.
5) Coherence and enhance effectiveness mixed with mortar and concrete.

(2) Research Institute of industrial Science and Technology in Pohang, Korea (RIST)
RIST researches and tests the usages in order to recycling and application of SC Ball
manufacturing at POSCO, which is as follows
1) Aggregates for cement bricks
In case of the usages as aggregates for bricks mixed with SC Ball, it is resulted in
superior strength but be heavy weight compared with sand bricks. Otherwise, in case
of mixing with more light other slag, it is satisfied superior strength and appropriate
weight simultaneously. Therefore if it will not generate over weight problem, the
usages mixed with PS Ball as aggregate is will not problem.
2) Improvement compaction for weak ground foundation
In case of the usages as vertical compaction materials mixed with SC Ball
(manufactured from atomizing process) and horizontal compaction materials mixed
with convert slag, it is resulted in superior effectiveness on water penetration and SC
Ball is proved more environment-friendly materials resulted from WPT,EPT,MPT
method as the test of the environmental pollution.

3) Raw material for cement
In case of the usages as substitution materials of iron ore at cement manufacturer
located in inland, it will be resulted in good quality and operation cost as well as, in
steel slag within atomizing process.

(3) Korea Agency for Technology and Standards (KATS)
1) SC Ball is produced through the unique new technology, the atomizing process that
is atomized and cooled by water rapidly resulted in spinel structure which a stable
structure removed the main factor of pollution physically and chemically
2) SC Ball and its technology will make a possible that usages as construction and
foundation materials, export to steelworks in overseas.
3) And then, very high growth will be expected by the development of various
applications as raw material for cement and etc.

(4) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), Gong-Ju University in Korea
For the uses as small aggregate (SC Ball) atomized and cooled by water rapidly for
concrete, the result from test of mortar properties due to the substitution rates with small
aggregates, which is follows
1) Small aggregates (SC Ball) atomized and cooled by water rapidly that composed FCaO
to under 1% and so formatted to stable, non-porosity structure, which is resulted
in the low water absorption rate and suited with KS for concrete aggregates because
of it’s spherical shapes, stability, small particle amount, etc
2) Unit water weight required to liquidity is diminished, compared with river sand and
standard sand because of the small surface area by spherical shapes
3) In increase of the used amount of small aggregates generated from steel slag, unit
water weight is diminished, compressive strength is increased, and dry contractibility
is diminished.

(5) Korea Road Technology Transfer Center (KRTTC) in Korea Highway Corporation,
Hanyang University in Korea
1) The more substitution rate of small aggregate of convert slag, the better flow rate of
mortar without regard to fitness modulus and water-cement rate of small aggregate
because of spherical shapes and smooth surface as small aggregate (SC Ball) of
convert slag.
2) The flow loss rate of the mortar manufactured from convert furnace slag aggregates
were similar to that of the mortar manufactured from washing sand only
3) The compressive strength of the mortar mixed with aggregates, which manufactured
from converts furnace slag, was larger than that manufactured from washing sand
only by mature measuring 7 days.